Psychology, in many forms, is a natural part of all human societies.
Modern pharmaceutical psychiatry has as its root a very specific western political agenda which was implemented in the middle of the 20th century.
Analytical psychology is a clear 'European' tradition, a version of a science which exists around the world. It was deliberately displaced, to the extent possible, by various western political interests, and replaced with colonial, or pharmaceutical, psychiatry.
The specific ploys used to turn psychology into a political tool in the Cold War period, isn't discussed here at length, any interested person can research it.
A quick summary though.
European psychology up to about the 1940s had clear historical roots. Freud and Jung and others were continuing a tradition which goes back thousands of years.
Starting sometime between the 1930s and 1950s a very clever effort was made by various political interests to create a new pseudoscience, a blend between medicine and cultural traditions.
This pseudoscience, which became modern psychiatry, grafted the norms of the collective European 'mindset' onto the general framework of 'medicine'. In other words it defined 'health' as 'the Western belief system'.
The first steps in the ruse were to create visible overlaps between real science and the new pseudoscience. This was easily done at the time because 'science' was largely academic and authoritarian.
Ultimately some trivial 'proofs' were given to the public of the nonsense that 'psychology is a subset of medicine, which is a subset of the 'global melting pot', which is a subset of Western European tradition'.
An example of how this was done is pharmaceutical lithium, mentioned elsewhere on the website.
For a long time, since well before lithium was identified as an element in the early 1800s, people have bathed in lithium springs to relax.
Nobody 'owned' the lithium nor the springs. In the 1960s an Australian scientist popped up and promoted this commonly known use of lithium, but he did it in a strange framework that allowed for it to be controlled, monopolized.
Next, the United States made lithium a 'psychiatric medicine', which was one of the many little things that gave the new psychiatry credibility. Lithium became the 'creation' or 'discovery' of psychiatry.
Lithium has an atomic number of 3, behind only hydrogen and helium, and is the 33rd most abundant element in the earth's crust.
It's calming effect has been used for thousands of years, in the form of lithium springs. Lithium absorbed through the skin at lithium baths or springs is completely harmless, but colonial psychiatry has somehow convinced people to forego the beneficial and safe lithium soak for a toxic version which has much less therapeutic benefit.
A manic person who soaks in water with a very strong concentration of lithium will be sedated quickly, within minutes, almost like being tranquilized, but with no intellectual impairment. The same person given lithium as a capsule or tablet will have no noticeable benefit for days or weeks, and is likely to have some toxic reaction.
Anybody who is curious can buy a pound of lithium carbonate from a ceramic supplier like https://www.sheffield-pottery.com/LITHIUM-CARBONATE-POWDERED-p/rmlitcarp.htm and put a quarter pound or so in a bathtub.
If the politicized pseudoscience of pharmaceutical psychiatry had not monopolized the research on lithium some important discoveries probably would have been made.
Lithium absorbed through the skin does not cause toxicity even in extremely high concentrations, while oral lithium is toxic in very small amounts. This might mean that lithium is utilized in the body through a different pathway than the blood circulatory system.
The body has many circulatory pathways, blood, lymph etc, and clearly research should be done on lithium absorption, but that won't happen until lithium is recognized as a nutrient, which it clearly is, whose deficiency or requirements fluctuate among individuals. And of course classifying lithium as a nutrient would take away from pseudoscientific psychiatry as much credibility as it got from pretending that lithium was a 'psychiatric medicine'.
One of the interesting facets of psychiatry is that there are no medications that cure any psychiatric illnesses. This should be a clue that psychiatry is a pseudoscience. All psychiatric medications are developed to manage symptoms, in other words as long as a pill is taken the symptoms subside. Once the pill is not taken then the symptoms are no longer suppressed. Traditional psychology, including analytical psychology in Europe, look for actual resolutions rather than hiding symptoms through pills.
Governments spend a lot of money on psychologists and psychiatrists.
"The new documents also revealed which of the letters and emails the FBI’s Behavioral Analysis Unit had reviewed before offering instructions on how to manipulate McDavid and guide him toward a terrorist conspiracy."
One person I know is an older Native.
He was born in the 1940s, taken from his family and sent to a boarding school, then decades later diagnosed with numerous psychiatric illnesses.
He is a Tlingit, which was a very warlike group in the early colonial period. They were famous for being 'difficult to colonize'.
He is unusual among mentally ill people in that despite being diagnosed with several severe mental illnesses, and taking a dozen or more pills a day, he has none of the usual symptoms of a medicated mentally ill person, aside from hearing voices when he does not take pills.
He does have severe side effects from decades of taking the pills, along with collateral problems like anxiety if he does not have the pills.
The substance of the 'voices' he hears are usually restrictive commands, like "Don't do that", etc.
One of his many diagnoses is a developmental disability i.e., retardation.
Years ago he was run over by a truck and had a lot of surgeries immediately after. One of his doctors thought his teeth might transfer an infection so before one of the surgeries all his teeth were removed. If you are not used to the way he talks, without teeth, it is difficult to know if he is smart or stupid. That injury left him with a severe limp too.
He also is almost entirely illiterate, unable to read or write, the result of an education he did not cooperate with at an Indian boarding school. So he has all the derivatives of illiteracy, he does not read newspapers, books etc. He does read and type enough to surf the Internet though.
A person could easily assume he is retarded at first, because his speech is hard to understand and he isn't up to speed on politicians, celebrities etc. except Britney Spears. Strangely though, if a person talks to him a bit they quickly see that he makes intellectual deductions that are not possible for a person who is actually retarded. So if he is judged on actual intelligence, real intelligence, he is at least normal, average.
Here I'll try to explain what appears to have happened.
Carl Jung wrote a bit about the concept of synchronicity.
A famous example was his talking with a client about something to do with golden or royal scarabs or something similar, when a golden/royal scarab beetle flew in the window. http://jungcurrents.com/synchronicity-the-golden-scarab-beetle
Jung studied quite a bit of anthropology, including among American Natives, in addition to commenting on phenomena like synchronicity.
Any group of people that is homogenous experiences synchronicity to the extent they are homogenous and to the extent 'their' synchronicity does not interfere, or contradict, a more basic or natural synchronicity.
So, for example, an isolated group will have certain 'synchronicities' within their group, and subgroups will have synchronicities that are either more solidly based or less solidly based. This is easily seen in the synchronicities of youth gangs, much weaker in less valid groups like most modern armies. One of the fraudulent games played by misguided people in governments and militaries is to 'capture' or 'induce' synchronicity among members, to give the illusion of authentic cohesion.
Among the many ways to describe 'mental illness' is by subjectivity and objectivity. A person can be subjectively mentally ill, or they could be objectively mentally ill.
In common language objectivity usually refers to something more people observe, a consensus, while subjectivity refers to a less valid individual view.
Unfortunately, this common tendency, to use 'subjective' and 'objective' this way, has caused a massive derailing of the concept of mental illness, especially when cultural and language issues are involved.
Here, objective mental illness will refer to an individual's own perception of their status, and subjective will refer to an outsider's view of their status, whether the outsider is one or a group.
In different cultures, different abilities, senses, etc are prioritized. In western culture spoken language is a powerful function in certain regards, but something like motivation is on weaker ground. So, for example, a typical westerner will give great weight to the precise words somebody speaks, but if you ask them to add a motive to those words they are usually content to guess.
The opposite would be a group in which precise motive is important, but spoken words are more fluid, containing less weight.
From a language some distance south of the Tlingits on the pacific coast
"Central Pomo Language is based on a systematic structure that consists of symbolic cues to relate to certain objects or ideas. Within the Central Pomo language, pronouns consist with full noun phrases. With these full noun phrases, sympathetic pronouns are also used within the language to convey certain thoughts and ideas from the speaker to the listener. Speakers are able to convey these thoughts and ideas without having to use any referential device. The Pomo language follows a highly systematic structure in which allows for speakers to communicate through cognitive and interactive cues. The language heavily relies on the state of the speaker and their understanding of the identification of self."
The Pomo also have a history that is interesting.
Tommy George Sr. (around 20 Sept., 1928 – 29 July 2016) was an elder of the Kuku Thaypan clan on Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia. He was the last fluent Awu Laya (Kuku Thaypan language) speaker.
An interesting Australian language that is “critically endangered” i.e., at the point of extinction...
"What’s especially unusual about Yanyuwa is that it’s one of the few languages in the world where men and women speak different dialects. Only three women speak the women's dialect fluently now, and Friday is one of few males who still speaks the men’s. Aboriginal people in previous decades were forced to speak English, and now there are only a few elderly people left who remember the language."
“The BBC reported in 2018 that there were 3 fluent female speakers worldwide.”
"Like the Creek, the Hitchiti had an ancient "female" dialect. The dialect was still remembered and sometimes spoken by the older people, and it used to be the language of the males as well. Their language with the "female" dialect was also known as the 'ancient language'."